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I  0^^ 

^rts  of  tfje  (J^fjiircl) 

Edited  by  the 

€i)c  Hrts  of  tije  OTJurrij 

Edited  by  the 

i6mo.      Profusely  Illustrated.     Cloth,  i/6  net. 

1.  THE      ORNAMENTS     OF     THE 

MINISTERS.  By  the  Rev.  Percy 
Dearmer,  D.D. 

2.  CHURCH       BELLS.       By     U.     B. 

Walters,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 


CHURCH.  By  A.  G.  Hill,  M.A., 

4.  CHURCH    MUSIC.       By    the    Rev. 

Maurice  F.  Bell,  M.A. 


ENGLAND.  Bv  the  Rev.  E.  Her- 
mitage Day,  D.D.,  F.S.A. 


IN  ENGLAND.  Bv  the  Rev.  E. 
Hermitage  Day,  D.D.,  F.S.A. 


By    the    Rev.     P.    H.    Ditchfield, 

M.A.,  F.S.A 

By  Harold  C.  King,  M.A. 
9.  CHURCH      EMBROIDERY.         By 

Alice   Drydkx. 

By  the  Rev.   E.   E.  DoRLiN(;,   M.A., 



€fje  ^rts  of  ti)t  (t\)nvc\) 



BY    THE 

Rev.   E.   E.   DORLING,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 


A.   R.   MOWBRAY  &  CO.   Ltd. 

London  :    28    Margaret   Street,   Oxford   Circus,   W. 

Oxford  :    9   High   Street 

First  printed,    191  i 


THE  little  volumes  in  the  Arts  of 
THE  Church  series  are  intended 
to  provide  information  in  an  interesting 
as  well  as  an  accurate  form  about  the 
various  arts  which  have  clustered  round 
the  public  worship  of  God  in  the  Church 
of  Christ.  Though  few  have  the  oppor- 
tunity of  knowing  much  about  them, 
there  are  many  who  would  like  to  possess 
the  main  outlines  about  those  arts  whose 
productions  are  so  familiar  to  the  Chris- 
tian, and  so  dear.  The  authors  will  write 
for  the  average  intelligent  man  who  has 
not  had  the  time  to  study  all  these  matters 
for  himself ;  and  they  will  therefore  avoid 
technicalities,  while  endeavouring  at  the 
same  time  to  present  the  facts  with  a 
fidelity  which  will  not,  it  is  hoped,  be 
unacceptable  to  the  specialist. 



Arms  of  Sees  in  the  Province  of  Canterbury  i  5 

Arms  of   Sees   in   the   Province   of   York      -  71 

Shields  specially  associated  v^mth  the  Holy 

Name         -           -           -           -           -           -  93 

The   Four   Evangelists       -          -           -          -  105 

Arms  assigned  to   Saints    -  -  -  -115 

Arms  suggested   for   Saints         -          -          -  '57 

Index       .          _          ^          -          =          -          -  193 

Ei)t  Hits  of  tljp  (ttijiirrij 

Heraldry  of  the  Church 

A  Handbook  for  Decorators 

t^^    t^^    ^^ 


THIS  little  book  is  intended,  as  its 
sub-title  implies,  for  the  use  of 
church  decorators.  It  has  been  written, 
and  illustrated  by  the  writer,  in  the  hope 
of  inducing  Church  people  of  to-day  to 
take  a  little  more  pains  with  the  heraldry 
that  is  placed  by  them  in  painted  windows 
and  on  carven  stones,  and  of  telling  some- 
thing of  what  is  implied  by  the  use  of 
heraldic  ornament. 

With  this  aim,  examples  of  the  shields 
of  arms   that  are  most  likely  to  be  used 


2  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

in  the  decoration  of  churches  are  here 
described  in  simple  intelligible  terms.  The 
first  part  of  the  book  is  occupied  with  the 
arms  of  the  dioceses  of  the  Church  of 
England  ;  the  remainder  of  it  comprises 
the  shields,  some  devised  in  mediaeval 
times  to  typify  certain  of  the  saints,  some 
designed  by  the  writer  to  serve  the  same 
purpose  for  those  saints  whom  the  armorial 
writers  of  the  middle  ages  omitted  from 
their  lists. 

It  is  hoped  that  this  selection  will  be 
found  useful  and  reasonably  comprehen- 
sive. Though  exigencies  of  space  forbid 
the  inclusion  of  all  coats  of  arms  that  have 
been  assigned  to  saints,  there  is  here  a 
shield  for  each  saint  in  whose  honour 
twenty  churches  and  upwards  have  been 
dedicated  in  England.  Of  these  by  far 
the  largest  number,  considerably  over 
2,000,  have  the  Blessed  Virgin  as  their 
patron  saint.  All  Saints  is  the  next  most 
favoured  dedication,  more  than  1,200 
churches    having  this   title.     Then   follow 

Introduction  3 

S.  Peter  with  over  900  ;  and  S.  Andrew 
and  S.  Michael  with  more  than  700 
churches.  Holy  Trinity  is  the  invocation 
of  between  600  and  700  ;  S.  James,  S.  John 
the  Evangelist  and  S.  John  Baptist  give 
their  names  to  over  500  churches.  S.  Ni- 
cholas follows  with  close  on  400  ;  Christ 
Church  and  S.  Paul  are  the  titles  of 
nearly  as  many.  S.  Laurence,  S.  Mar- 
garet and  S.  Mary  Magdalene  respectively 
are  the  patron  saints  of  over  200  churches, 
and  between  100  and  200  are  dedicated 
in  honour  of  S.  Bartholomew,  S.  George, 
S.  Giles,  S.  Helen,  S.  Leonard,  S.  Luke, 
S.  Mark,  S.  Martin,  S.  Matthew,  S.  Stephen 
and  S.  Thomas  the  Apostle.  Holy  Cross 
is  the  name  of  close  on  100  churches  ; 
S.  Catherine,  S.  Cuthbert,  and  S.  Saviour 
of  nearly  as  many.  Between  50  and  80 
have  the  names  of  S.  Augustine,  S.  Clement, 
S.  Botolph,  S.  Oswald,  S.  Barnabas, 
S.  Thomas  of  Canterbury  and  S.  Anne. 
Ranging  between  40  and  70  are  the  dedica- 
tions of  churches  in  honour  of  Emmanuel, 

4  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

S.  Chad,  S.  Philip,  and  S.  Wilfrid  ;  while 
from  20  to  40  churches  have  the  titles 
of  S.  Bridget  (or  S.  Bride),  S.  David, 
S.  Faith,  S.  Gregory,  S.  Hilda,  S.  Alban, 
S.  Denys  and  S.  Jude. 

This  book  makes  no  claim  to  be  a 
manual  of  heraldry.  The  mysterious 
jargon  of  the  science  is,  as  far  as  possible, 
replaced  by  straightforward  English  which 
may  be  easily  understood  by  readers 
ignorant  of  heraldic  technicalities.  It  has 
been,  of  course,  impossible  entirely  to 
avoid  the  use  of  technical  terms  ;  but 
these  will  explain  themselves  when  the 
descriptions  in  which  they  occur  are  com- 
pared with  the  drawings  placed  opposite 
10  them. 

Heraldry  is  a  matter  which  enters,  and 
always  has  entered,  very  largely  into  the 
decoration  of  churches.  Carvers  in  wood 
and  stone,  workers  in  metal  and  glass, 
painters,  embroiderers  and  illuminators 
have  all  enriched  our  stores  of  heraldic 
art.     But  the  heraldic  art  of  the  middle 

Introduction  5 

ages  is  a  very  different  thing  from  that  of 
the  last  three  hundred  years.  Even  when 
to  modern  eyes  the  old  examples  seem 
crude  and  harsh  it  is  impossible  to  deny 
their  vigour  and  power  ;  when,  as  is  most 
often  the  case,  they  attain  to  beauty  their 
beauty  is  of  a  quality  that  must  appeal  to 
the  modern  craftsman  who  is  trying  to 
import  into  his  own  work  something  of 
the  dignity  and  charm  that  distinguish 
the  old. 

But  for  the  most  part  the  modern 
craftsman  is  trying  to  do  nothing  of  the 
kind.  Oblivious  to  what  almost  every 
old  church  has  to  teach  him,  he  is  content 
to  reproduce  the  mistakes  and  the  feeble- 
ness of  other  moderns  as  ignorant  as 
himself.  If  he  can  be  persuaded  to  study 
the  old  examples  he  copies  and  traces  and 
measures  them,  not  because  he  is  too 
humble  to  try  to  work  as  the  men  of  old 
time  worked,  trusting  to  a  keen  eye  and  a 
sure  hand  to  give  life  and  proportion  and 
stateliness  to  his  work,  but  because  he  is 

6  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

too  idle  to  find  out  for  himself  the  ways 
by  which  they  reached  to  the  success  that 
is  theirs. 

Let  it  be  understood  that  I  am  speaking 
of  heraldic  work,  and  of  that  only.  For 
the  decorators  of  to-day  can  produce  work 
that  is  every  whit  as  fine  in  execution  as 
that  of  the  middle  ages.  It  is  their 
design  that  sadly  needs  improvement  ; 
and  the  pity  of  it  is  that  their  patrons  are 
satisfied  with  the  poor  stufF  that  issues 
every  day  from  the  workshops.  When, 
as  sometimes  happens,  the  modern  worker 
is  neither  humble  nor  idle,  but  merely  a 
conceited  and  ignorant  fellow  who  trusts 
to  his  own  unaided  genius  to  produce 
heraldic  ornament,  the  result  is  usually 
ludicrous,  and  if  it  were  not  so  fatuous 
would  be  distressing. 

What  this  little  book  aims  at  is  to  teach 
the  decorator  who  is  willing  to  learn  that 
heraldry  may  be  as  beautiful  to-day  as 
ever  it  was  ;  that  it  may  have  distinction 
and  grace  and  fitness  akin  to  that  of  the 

Introduction  7 

Middle  Ages  ;  that  if  his  work  is  to 
possess  those  qualities  he  must  first  study 
the  armorial  glass  and  the  seals,  the  monu- 
ments and  the  illuminations  of  the  olden 
time.  If  he  will  not  do  that,  let  him  at 
least  be  guided  by  those  who  have  gone 
for  their  inspiration  to  the  work  of  the 
great  periods. 

The  question  arises  then — What  are 
the  elements  of  the  beauty  of  ancient 
heraldic  design  ?  1  think  they  are  three  ; 
first,  cleanness  and  firmness  of  line  ; 
secondly,  balance  and  proportion  ;  and 
lastly,  splendour  of  colour.  If  modern 
work  is  to  have  the  same  beauty  it  must 
conform  to  the  same  rules. 

Let  all  your  lines,  then,  be  clean  and 
firm  and  expressive.  There  must  be  no 
haziness  or  sketchiness  of  outline.  You 
must  get  your  effects  with  a  strong  sure 
stroke  in  which  each  touch  of  pen  or 
chisel,  needle  or  brush  means  something 
definite.  Look  at  the  leopards  in  the 
shield  of  Lincoln,  page  43,  or  the  cinqfoils 

8  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

in  the  arms  of  S.  Davids,  page  59.  In  the 
one  case  the  simple  drawing  of  the  beasts 
attempts  to  show  how  roundness  and 
strength  and  "  go "  may  be  expressed 
with  economy  of  line  ;  in  the  other  the 
cinqfoils  placed  on  the  cross  seem,  with- 
out being  exactly  formal  and  regular,  to 
have  their  due  value  in  the  little  scheme 
of  decoration.  Everyday  experience  shows 
only  too  plainly  how  qualities  of  that 
kind,  which  are  the  essence  of  ancient 
heraldic  art,  are  lacking  in  most  of  the 
heraldry  of  to-day. 

The  mediaeval  armorists  attained  in  an 
apparently  instinctive  and  effortless  manner 
to  a  quality  of  proportion  which  we  can 
only  reach  after  long  and  careful  study  of 
their  draughtsmanship.  Their  secret  ap- 
pears to  be  this  ;  that  they  made  the 
amount  of  space  covered  by  the  charges 
rather  less  than  the  area  of  the  field  left 
visible.  We,  on  the  other  hand,  are  apt 
either  to  make  our  charges  far  too  small, 
when  the  shield  looks  poor  and  weak,  or 

Introduction  9 

too  big,  when  it  has  a  crowded  and  over- 
weighted appearance.  Look  at  the  Chester 
mitres,  page  79,  or  at  the  birds  in  the 
shield  of  S.  Thomas,  page  153.  In  both 
instances  there  is  some  sort  of  balance 
between  the  charges  and  the  held,  and  it 
may  perhaps  be  claimed  for  each  that  the 
effect  is  lively  and  agreeable. 

The  same  sort  of  caution  is  necessary 
when  dealing  with  large  charges  which  have 
smaller  objects  upon  them.  S.  George's 
cross,  page  135,  satisfies  the  eye,  but  it  is 
considerably  narrower  than  that  of  Carlisle, 
page  77,  which  must  needs  be  wide  be- 
cause of  the  mitre  which  it  carries.  Again, 
when  a  large  charge  is  between  smaller 
objects  the  same  care  must  be  exercised. 
Compare  S.  George's  cross  with  that  of 
Durham,  page  75,  and  see  how  the  latter 
is  narrow  to  allow  room  for  the  four 
lions.  Yet  all  three  crosses  are  of  sound 
heraldic  type,  the  Carlisle  cross  being 
wide  to  allow  the  mitre  to  have  its  due 
effect    in    the    scheme,    that    of    Durham 


lo  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

being  narrow  to  let  the  four  lions  do 
their  share. 

Or  compare  the  fesse  in  the  arms  of 
Oxford,  page  49,  with  that  of  S.  Barnabas, 
page  163.  Each  is  a  good  fesse  ;  but  the 
one  is  narrow  because  it  has  other  charges 
above  and  below  it,  the  other  is  wide 
because  it  has  charges  upon  it. 

Beware  of  what  are  called  "art  colours." 
If  a  thing  is  red,  paint  it  red,  a  clear, 
bright,  splendid  scarlet.  Do  not  use  pink, 
or  crimson,  or  terra-cotta.  Hues  such  as 
those  must  be  banished  absolutely  from 
the  palette  of  the  heraldic  painter.  For 
a  blue  thing  use  a  clean  and  cool  colour 
like  Prussian  blue.  A  hot,  purply  blue 
should  be  avoided.  A  vivid  green  of  the 
colour  of  young  spring  grass  is,  in  the 
same  way,  preferable  to  olive  or  emerald 
or  bottle-green. 

The  love  of  the  mediaeval  armorists  for 
blue  is  noteworthy.  The  celestial  colour 
is  what  we  naturally  expect  to  find  in 
shields    that    typify    the    Blessed    Virgin, 

Introduction  1 1 

such  as  the  arms  of  Salisbury,  of  Lincoln, 
and  the  shield  of  Our  Lady  itself.  But 
it  appears  also  in  the  arms  assigned  to 
martyrs,  such  as  S.  Andrew,  S.  Clement, 
and  S.  Edmund  ;  in  that  of  Edward  the 
Confessor,  of  Hilda  the  abbess,  of  Guthlac 
the  hermit.  This  fondness  for  blue  is 
possibly  a  reflection  of  the  devotion  of  the 
English  Church  for  the  Blessed  Virgin, 
a  devotion  which  is  further  exemplified  in 
the  enormous  number  of  churches  that 
are  dedicated  in  honour  of  the  Mother  of 
our  Lord. 

It  remains  to  give  some  hints  as  to 
the  drawing  and  placing  of  heraldic 
charges,  and  to  explain  a  few  technical 

Swords  should  be  so  drawn  as  to  look 
like  real  weapons,  not  like  theatrical 

Keys,  when  there  is  a  pair  of  them 
(see  Winchester,  page  21)  have  a  better 
appearance  if  their  wards,  which  are  always 
upwards,  are  of  different  patterns.     When 

1 2  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

they  are  crossed  that  which  is  placed 
diagonally  from  top  left  to  bottom  right 
should  be  above  the  other.  (See  Glou- 
cester, page  37,  and  compare  the  croziers 
of  Llandaff,  page  45.) 

"Leopards"  are  lions  walking  and  full- 
faced;  "lions"  are  sidefaced  and  rampant. 
(See  Lincoln,  page  43,  and  Durham, 
page  75.)  ^ 

The  chief  is  the  upper  part  of  the 
shield.  A  chief  is  that  same  part  cut 
off  by  a  horizontal  line. 

The  saltire  is  a  difficult  charge  to  draw 
satisfactorily,  and  it  is  well  to  get  the  four 
arms  as  nearly  as  possible  of  equal  length 
and  its  upper  and  lower  angles  slightly 
less  than  right  angles. 

Make  your  mitres  of  the  simple  early 
shape.  Do  not  be  lured  into  drawing  the 
ugly  bulbous  objects  which  did  duty  for 
mitres  in  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth 

Keep  the  angles  of  chevrons  (see 
S.    Botolph,   page    165)    somewhat    acute. 

Introduction  1 3 

A  chevron  with   an   obtuse   angle   is    not 
a  beautiful  thing. 

All  drapery  should  be  expressed  by 
simple  lines.  Shading  by  cross-hatching 
should  not  be  attempted.  (See  Sodor  and 
Man,  page  89,  and  S.  Matthew,  page  107.) 

When  a  shield  contains  only  three 
similar  charges  arranged  two  and  one,  the 
lowest  of  the  three  may  be  very  slightly 
larger  than  the  other  two.  (See  S.  Nicholas, 
page  183.) 

It  is  perhaps  hardly  necessary  to  explain 
that  "gules"  means  red,  "  azure"  is  blue, 
"  sable  "  stands  for  black,  and  "  vert "  is 
the  heraldic  name  for  green. 

It  remains  for  me  to  express  my  great 
indebtedness  to  the  monumental  Ecclesias- 
tical Heraldry  of  the  late  Dr.  Woodward, 
to  Dr.  Husenbeth's  Emblems  of  Saints^  to 
Mrs.  Jameson's  valuable  works.  Sacred 
and  Legendary  Art  and  their  companions. 
Legends  of  the  Monastic  Orders  and  Legends 
of  the  Madonna^  to  the  great  Catalogue  of 
Seals  in  the  British   Museum   compiled   by 

14  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

Dr.  Walter  de  Gray  Birch,  and  last  but 
not  least  to  Frances  Arnold -Forster's 
Studies  in  Church  Dedications.  Without 
the  aid  which  these  writers  have  afforded 
me  I  could  hardly  have  produced  this 
little  piece  of  work.  If  those  who  use  it 
find  it  of  any  value  and  interest  1  shall 
be  more  than  happy. 

E.  E.  D. 

ARMS    OF    SEES    IN   THE 

1 6  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Azure  an  archbishop' s  crozier  with  its 
staff  silver  and  its  cross  gold  surmounted  by  a 
pall  in  its  proper  colours. 

Simon  Islip  (1349-66)  was  the  first 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury  who  had  these 
arms  engraved  upon  his  seal  ;  all  his 
successors  have  employed  them  as  the 
arms  of  the  metropolitan  see  of  England. 

The  pall  is  white,  edged  and  fringed 
with  gold,  and  the  four  crosses  upon  it, 
which  must  have  the  shape  drawn  in  the 
illustration  opposite,  are  black.  The 
arms  of  the  See  of  Armagh  are  the  same 
as  those  of  Canterbury  ;  those  of  the 
Archbishopric  of  Dublin  have  five  crosses 
on  the  pall,  otherwise  they  are  like  those 
of  Canterbury  and  Armagh. 

The  'Province  of  Canterbury 



Heraldry  of  the   Church 


Gules  t\^o  swords  gold  of  S.  Paul  crossed 
saltirewise  with  their  points  upwards. 

Ralph  Stratford  (1340-54)  seems  to 
have  been  the  first  Bishop  of  London  to 
display  these  arms  as  those  of  the  see, 
although  several  of  his  predecessors  had 
introduced  into  their  seals  a  figure  of 
S.  Paul,  the  patron  saint  of  the  cathedral 
and  city,  with  his  emblems  of  sword  and 
book.  After  Bishop  Stratford's  time  the 
use  of  the  arms  by  Bishops  of  London 
became  almost  universal. 

The  mediaeval  heralds  gave  to  S.  Paul 
himself  the  same  shield  but  with  the 
swords  silver. 

The  Province  of  Canterbury 



20  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Gules  S.  Peter  s  keys  gold  and  silver  mth 
S.  PauFs  sword  thrust  between  them  saltire- 
wise  and  having  its  blade  silver  and  its  hilt 

This  Is  the  most  usual  form  of  these 
ancient  arms,  borne  in  memory  of  the 
saints  in  whose  honour  the  cathedral  is 
dedicated.  The  manner  in  which  the 
charges  are  arranged  has  varied  from  time 
to  time  ;  but  the  field  is  consistently 
coloured  red  ;  the  keys  set  back  to  back 
with  their  bows  interlinked  are  always 
gold  and  silver  ;  and  it  is  always  the 
golden  key  which  lies  over  the  blade  of 
the  sword. 

ne  Trovince  of  Canterbury  21 


2  2  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Gules  a  bend  gold  sprinkled  mth  drops 
sable  between  tvoo  pierced  molets  silver. 

These  are  the  colours  used  at  present. 
In  former  days  the  bend  was  silver  ; 
sometimes  the  drops  were  coloured 
blue.  The  red  of  the  field  is  seen 
through  the  piercing  of  the  molets.  It 
is  impossible  to  say  what  is  the  origin 
of  these  beautiful  arms,  or  if  they  have 
any  reference  to  the  dedication  of  the 
cathedral  or  to  a  bishop  of  olden  times. 
The  seal  of  Bishop  Roland  Merrick 
(1559-66)  is  the  earliest  in  the  collection 
at  the  British  Museum  to  show  these 
arms  impaling  his  own  personal  coat. 

T^he  Trovince  of  Canterbury  23 


24  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

Bath   and  Wells 

Azure  a  saltire  quartered  saltiremse  gold 
and  silver. 

The  arms  are  those  of  Wells,  the  seat 
of  the  bishop,  the  saltire  being  S.  Andrew's 
cross  in  allusion  to  the  dedication  of  the 
cathedral.  The  arms  of  Bath  are  not 
now  used. 

The  field  is  blue.  Each  arm  of  the 
saltire  is  divided  lengthways  into  equal 
alternate  strips  of  gold  and  silver,  begin- 
ning with  gold  in  the  top  left-hand  corner. 
The  gold  is  consequently  above  the  divid- 
ing-line on  the  dexter  side  (that  is  the 
spectator's  left),  and  below  it  on  the 
sinister  side  of  the  saltire. 

Tlie  Trovince  of  Canterbury  25 


2  6  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Party  indented  gold  and  gules  five  roundels 
with  tvoo  crosses  formy  in  the  chief  all  counter- 

The  field  of  these  arms,  divided  by  the 
zigzag  line  into  two  halves  (that  to  the 
spectator's  left  being  gold  and  the  other 
side  red),  is  derived  from  the  ancient 
shield  of  the  Berminghams,  a  powerful 
feudal  family  holding  in  the  Middle  Ages 
broad  domains  where  the  city  now  stands. 
The  two  crosses  and  the  five  roundels  are 
added  in  memory  of  S.  Philip  in  whose 
honour  the  cathedral  church  is  dedicated. 
As  the  blazon  indicates,  these  charges  are 
countercoloured,  that  is  those  that  are  on 
the  gold  are  red,  and  vice  versa,  the 
roundel  in  the  foot  of  the  shield  where 
the  zigzag  line  passes  through  it  being 
itself  partly  red  and  partly  gold. 

The  meaning  of  these  charges  is  ex- 
plained later  under  S.  Philip,  page  184. 

ne  Trovince  of  Canterbury  27 


2  8  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Sable  three  crowns  palewise  gold. 

An  early  example  of  these  arms  has  the 
field  azure,  and  that  is  probably  its 
original  colour.  When  the  field  was  blue 
there  was  a  good  reason  fior  setting  the 
crowns  one  under  the  other,  for  thereby 
this  shield  was  distinguished  from  one  of 
the  many  shields  assigned  to  S.  Edmund 
in  which  the  golden  crowns  were  arranged 
two  and  one.  The  date  of  the  change  of 
the  colour  of  the  field  from  blue  to  black 
is  lost.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the 
three  crowns  refer  to  the  dedication  of  the 
cathedral  in  honour  of  the  Holy  Trinity. 

The  Trovince  of  Canterbury  29 


30  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

Azure   our  LORD  chid  in    yvhite  mth   a 
golden  girdle  seated  upon  a  throne  gold  and 
haYing  a  s'^ord  coming  out  of  His  mouth  with 
its  blade  silver  and  its  hilt  gold. 

This  design,  evidently  suggested  by  S. 
John's  vision  of  our  Lord  in  glory,  appears 
in  the  seals  of  Sigefrid  who  ruled  the  see 
from  1 1  80  to  1204,  and  of  Richard  de  la 
Wich  and  John  Chipping,thirteenth-century 
Bishops  of  Chichester.  In  these  seals,  how- 
ever, the  sword  is  omitted,  and  the  figure  is 
set  between  two  candlesticks.  The  fifteenth- 
century  seal  of  the  dean  and  chapter  omits 
the  candlesticks,  but  has  the  sword.  John 
Arundel,  bishop  from  1459  to  1477  was 
the  first  bishop  to  place  the  figure  upon 
a  shield  as  the  arms  of  the  see. 

The  face  of  our  Lord  should  be  painted 
in  its  natural  colours  ;  so  should  the  hands 
and  feet  which  show  the  wounds.  The 
halo  is  gold  with  a  red  cross  upon  it.  The 
throne  may  have  a  red  cushion,  and  the 
footstool  may  be  of  the  same  colour. 

The  Trovince  of  Canterbury  3  i 


32  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Gules  three  crowns  gold. 

Bishop  William  de  Luda  is  found  using 
these  arms  as  early  as  1290.  They  are 
those  assigned  to  S.  Etheldreda,  Queen  of 
Northumbria  and  founder  of  the  Abbey  of 
Ely,  in  whose  honour  the  cathedral  church 
is  dedicated.  The  reverse,  Gold  three 
crowns  gules.,  are  the  arms  of  S.  Osyth, 
Queen  of  the  East  Saxons  and  founder  of 
a  nunnery  at  Chick  in  Essex,  who  was 
murdered  by  the  Danes  about  the  year  676. 

The  Province  of  Canterbu 

iry  1^1^ 


34  Heraldry  of  the  Church 



Gules  a  s^ord  silver  mth  its  hilt  gold  sur- 
mounted by  tyvo  keys  gold  crossed  saltiremse. 

These  arms  assumed  their  present  form 
in  the  episcopate  of  John  Boothe,  Bishop 
of  Exeter  from  1465  to  1478.  Edmund 
Lacy  (1420-55)  took  two  keys  and  a 
sword  in  saltire  for  the  arms  of  the  see. 
Edmund  Stafford,  his  predecessor,  used 
two  keys.  The  charges  are  borne  in 
allusion  to  the  ancient  dedication  of  the 
cathedral  to  S.  Peter  and  S.  Paul. 

The  Province  of  Canterbury 



36  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

Azure  two  keys  gold  crossed  saltiremse. 

The  Abbey  of  Gloucester  was  under  the 
protection  of  S.  Peter,  and  the  keys  of  the 
Apostle  naturally  appear  in  the  blue  shields 
of  the  monastic  house  and  the  see.  When 
in  later  years  the  name  of  S.  Paul  was 
added  to  the  dedication,  S.  Paul's  sword 
was  borne  upright  along  with  the  keys, 
and  is  so  engraved  in  the  fifteenth-century 
seal  of  the  abbey.  The  sword  has,  how- 
ever, been  disused  for  a  long  time. 

The  shield  that  the  armorists  of  the 
Middle  Ages  assigned  to  S.  Peter  himself 
was  Gules  two  crossed  keys  silver. 

The  ProYince  of  Canterbury  37 


38  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Gules  three  fleurs-de-lis  coming  out  of 
leopards'  heads  gold. 

This  is  the  coat-armour  of  the  powerful 
house  of  Cantilupe  from  which  came 
Thomas  de  Cantilupe,  Bishop  of  Hereford 
from  1275  to  1282.  Adam  Orlton,  the 
next  bishop  but  one  after  him,  had  two 
such  fleurs-de-lis  engraved  in  his  seal, 
and  after  his  time  these  arms  came  to  be 
regarded  as  the  arms  of  the  see. 

The  leopards'  heads  are  usually  drawn 
reversed,  as  in  the  illustration  opposite, 
but  there  is  good  reason  for  believing  that 
they  are  nothing  more  than  a  decorative 
elaboration  of  the  ball  or  knop  from  which 
the  leaves  of  the  flowers  spring.  The 
earliest  examples  of  the  arms  of  Cantilupe 
show  three  golden  fleurs-de-lis  on  red, 
and  the  seal  of  a  flfteenth-century  Bishop 
of  Hereford  gives  them  in  the  shield  of 
the  see  with  very  large  plain  knops.  But 
usage  has  decided  that  the  knops  shall  be 
leopards'  heads  reversed,  and  it  is  as  well, 
no  doubt,  to  conform  to  the  usual  practice. 

The  Prol^mce  of  Canterbury 



40  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Party  gules  and  silver  a  cross  quadrate 
and  potent  between  four  crosses  formy  all 

No  satisfactory  explanation  is  known  of 
these  ancient  and  remarkable  arms,  which 
in  the  Middle  Ages  were  devised  for 
S.  Chad,  Bishop  of  Mercia,  and  patron 
of  the  cathedral. 

The  shield  is  equally  divided  by  the 
perpendicular  line  and  coloured  red  and 
silver,  the  red  being  on  the  spectator's 
left  hand.  The  large  cross,  similarly 
divided,  is  coloured  red  where  it  rests 
on  the  silver,  and  silver  in  its  other  half. 
The  four  small  crosses  are  treated  in  the 
same  way,  those  in  the  red  half  being 
silver  while  the  two  in  the  silver  are  red. 
The  central  cross  is  of  unusual  form.  Its 
arms  issue  from  a  square  and  end  in 
crutch-shaped  pieces,  whence  its  name 
"potent,"  from  the  French  potence  =  2, 

The  Pro'))ince  of  Canterbury  41 


42  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Gules  two  leopards  gold  and  a  chief  azure 
mth  Our  Lady  enthroned  mth  the  Child  all 
gold  therein. 

These  arms  first  appear  in  the  seal  of 
William  Smith,  Bishop  of  Lincoln  from 
1495  ^o  I5H-  The  lower  part  of  the 
shield  contains  the  traditional  arms  of  the 
Dukes  of  Normandy  in  memory,  it  seems 
probable,  of  William  the  Conqueror,  who 
in  1085  transferred  the  seat  of  the  bishop 
of  that  vast  diocese  from  Dorchester  on 
the  Thames  to  Lincoln.  The  figures  in 
the  chief  refer  to  the  dedication  of  the 
cathedral  in  honour  of  the  Blessed  Virgin. 

The  FroVince  of  Canterbury  43 


44  Heraldry  of  the   Church 


S>ahle  t\oo  croziers  crossed  sa/tirevpise^  the 
one  gold^  the  other  silver^  and  a  chief  azure 
with  three  mitres  gold  therein. 

The  golden  crozier,  laid  diagonally  with 
its  head  in  the  top  left-hand  corner  of  the 
black  field,  should  pass  over  the  other, 
which  is  all  of  silver.  The  three  golden 
mitres  in  the  blue  chief  should  be  so 
arranged  that  with  their  pendent  labels 
they  occupy  about  half  of  the  area  of  that 
upper  part.  This  is  not  an  easy  shield 
to  draw  so  that  it  presents  a  quite  satis- 
factory appearance.  The  croziers  especially 
require  very  careful  treatment.  They 
must  be  drawn  boldly,  even  at  the  ex- 
pense of  proportion,  otherwise  they  will 
look  very  thin  and  make  no  show  on  their 
black  background.  The  charges  them- 
selves seem  to  have  no  special  reference 
to  the  history  of  the  see  or  to  the  dedica- 
tion  of  the  cathedral. 

The  ProYince  of  Canterbury  45 


46  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Azure  three  mitres  with  their  labels  gold. 

These  arms  are  found  as  early  as  1351 
in  the  second  seal  of  William  Bateman, 
Bishop  of  Norwich  from  1344  to  1355. 
Dr.  Woodward  {^Ecclesiastical  Heraldry^ 
p.  327)  suggests  that  the  three  mitres 
"  may  possibly  refer  to  the  union  in  the 
See  of  Norwich  of  the  Bishoprics  of 
Thetford,  Dunwich,  and  Elmham." 

The  ProYince  of  Canterbury  47 



48  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


^able  a  fesse  silver  between  three  ladies' 
heads  in  the  chief  mth  their  clothing  silver 
and  their  crowns  gold  and  an  ox  silver  passing 
a  ford  in  the  foot. 

The  lower  portion  of  the  shield  contains 
the  canting  arms  of  the  city  ;  the  ford 
being  represented  by  waved  bars  alter- 
nately silver  and  blue.  The  ladies'  heads 
above  the  fess  perhaps  refer  to  S.  Frides- 
wide,  Abbess  of  Oxford  and  her  two  patron 
saints,  S.  Cecilia  and  S.  Catherine.  Dr. 
Woodward  put  forward  the  suggestion 
that  the  heads  may  be  those  of  kings, 
referring  to  the  tradition  of  the  royal 
foundation  of  the   University. 

The  ProVince  of  Canterbury  49 



50  Heraldry  of  the   Church 


Gules  S.  Peter  s  keys  crossed  saltirewnse 
between  four  cross  lets  fitchy  gold. 

Both  the  keys  are  gold  in  spite  of  the 
convention  that  one  of  S.  Peter's  keys 
should  be  silver.  The  arms  are  those 
of  the  Abbey  of  Peterborough  (in  which 
only  the  keys  appeared),  differenced  by 
the  addition  of  four  golden  crosslets, 
having  their  lower  arms  ending  in  spikes. 
The  other  arms  of  the  crosslets  are  made 
in  the  fashion  of  the  Middle  Ages  with 
trefoil  ends. 

The  Pro^nnce  of  Canterbury  5 


52  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Silver  a  saltire  gules  with  a  scallop  gold 

The  earliest  Rochester  seal  in  the 
British  Museum  collection  that  displays 
these  arms  is  that  of  John  Scory,  bishop 
from   1 55 1    to   1554. 

The  red  saltire  is  in  allusion  to  S.  An- 
drew in  whose  honour  the  cathedral  was 
originally  dedicated.  The  reason  for  the 
golden  scallop  is  lost. 

The  Pro'))ince  of  Canterbury  ^i^ 


54  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

St.  Albans 

Azure  a  saltire  gold  and  over  all  a  sword 
set  upright  mth  its  blade  silver  and  its  hilt 
gold  and  haVing  o'))er  its  point  a  celestial 
crown  gold. 

Here  the  ancient  arms  of  the  abbey, 
which  bore  S.  Alban's  golden  saltire  on 
blue,  are  differenced  by  the  martyr's  sword 
and  crown  to  form  the  arms  of  the  see. 

The  Pro'))ince  of  Canterbury  55 


^6  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

St.   Asaph 

Sable  iwo  keys  siher  crossed  salttrew^se. 

This  is  the  usual  form  of  these  arms, 
and  they  are  so  engraved  in  the  seal  of 
Robert  Lancaster,  Bishop  of  S.  Asaph 
from  141 1  to  1433.  But  in  one  earlier 
and  some  later  examples  a  crozier  appears 
instead  of  one  of  the  keys.  There  is  no 
obvious  reason  for  the  reference  of  the 
keys  to  this  saint  or  to  the  see  that  bears 
his  name. 

The  Prolpince  of  Canterbury  57 


Heraldry  of  the   Church 

St.   Davids 

Sable  a  cross  gold  mth  five  cinqfoils  sable 

These  arms  have  the  appearance  of  a 
personal  coat.  It  is  impossible  to  say  how 
or  when  they  came  to  be  assigned  to  the 
see.  In  our  drawing  the  cinqfoils  are 
pierced  in  accordance  with  ancient  prac- 
tice. The  gold  of  the  cross  shows  through 
the  holes. 

The  Pro')>ince  of  Canterbury  59 


6o  Heraldry  of  the   Church 


Azure  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  mth  the 
Child  gold. 

The  arms  of  the  see  are  suggested  by 
the  dedication  of  the  cathedral  church  in 
honour  of  Our  Lady.  In  all  examples  of 
these  arms  the  Child  is  carried  on  the 
right  arm  of  His  Mother,  who  is  standing. 
Both  before  and  since  the  Reformation 
the  almost  universal  practice  has  been  to 
represent  the  Virgin  crowned  and  holding 
a  sceptre  in  her  left  hand. 

The  Pro)>mce  of  Canterbury  6 1 


62  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

South  WARK 

Silver  a  cross  indented  gules  yvith  a  mitre 
gules  in  the  quarter. 

These  arms  are  a  differenced  version  of 
the  armorial  bearings  of  the  Priory  of 
S.  Mary  Overie  in  Southwark  whose 
church  is  now  the  cathedral  of  the  dio- 
cese. The  shield  of  the  priory  was  silver 
with  the  same  red  cross  of  lozenges  and  a 
lozenge  gules  in  the  quarter.  The  modern 
substitution  of  the  mitre  for  the  old  lozenge 
is  a  very  happy  and  expressive  example  of 
heraldic  differencing. 

Great  care  is  needed  in  the  drawing  of 
this  cross.  It  is  easy  to  make  this  beautiful 
charge  quite  ugly  and  ridiculous  ;  but  there 
is  no  need  to  do  so. 

The  Province  of  Canterbury  63 


64  Heraldry  of  the   Church 


Stable  three  fountains  and  a  chief  gold  with 
a  pale  azure  bet^^een  a  deer  in  its  proper 
colours  lying  doyvn  and  two  ragged  stages  ^ert 
crossed  with  Our  Lady  and  the  Qhild  gold  in 
the  pale. 

The  "  fountains,"  which  are  coloured 
with  six  waved  bars  alternately  blue  and 
silver  to  represent  water,  refer  to  the 
second  syllable  of  the  name.  The  deer 
which  is  part  of  the  arms  of  the  town  of 
Derby,  and  the  green  cross  which  appears 
in  those  of  Nottingham,  refer  to  the  two 
counties  which  comprise  the  diocese  ;  while 
the  blue  pale  with  its  golden  figures  is  a 
reminder  of  the  See  of  Lincoln  of  which 
the  County  of  Nottingham  was  formerly  a 
part.  There  is  no  reference  to  the  See  of 
Lichfield  to  which  Derbyshire  used  to 

The  Pro^nnce  of  Canterbury  6^ 


66  Heraldry  of  the   Church 


Siher  a  saltire  gules  with  a  fleur-de-lis 
sable  in  the  foot  and  upon  the  saltire  a  l^ey 
gold  surmounted  by  a  sVQord  gold  having  its 
hilt  upward  all  mthin  a  border  sable  charged 
"ivith  fifteen  bezants. 

Dr.  Woodward  (Ecclesiastical  Heraldry^ 
p.  189)  explains  these  arms  as  follows  : — 
The  red  saltire^  the  cross  of  S.  Patrick,  is 
taken  as  the  heraldic  symbol  (in  modern 
times  only)  of  the  ancient  Celtic  Church. 
The  sword  and  key  in  saltire  are  taken 
from  a  shield  in  the  Church  of  S.  Germans, 
the  old  Episcopal  seat.  Th&  fleur-de-lis  is 
assumed  to  denote  the  transference  of  the 
see  to  the  Church  of  S.  Mary  at  Truro. 
The  bordure  is  composed  from  the  arms 
of  the  Duchy  of  Cornwall. 

The  Pro^bice  of  Canterbury  67 


68  Heraldry  of  the   Church 


Silver  ten  roundels  gules. 

These  arms  are  not,  as  is  sometimes 
said,  those  of  Godfrey  Giffard,  Bishop  of 
Worcester  from  1268  to  1302  ;  the  charges 
in  his  paternal  coat  were  three  passant 
lions.  This  shield  with  the  red  roundels 
is  found  in  a  fourteenth-century  seal  of 
the  Hospital  of  S.  W^ulstan  at  Worcester. 
He  was  made  Bishop  of  Worcester  in  the 
time  of  Edward  the  Confessor  and  lived 
into  the  reign  of  William  Rufus.  In  the 
Middle  Ao^es  his  name  is  found  amona 
those  of  the  saints  in  whose  honour  the 
cathedral  was  dedicated,  and  the  memory 
of  this  great-hearted  and  patriotic  bishop 
was  greatly  cherished  there.  The  shield 
was  perhaps  devised  to  commemorate  some 
forgotten  deed  of  his. 

Thomas  Peverell  (1407-19)  is  the  first 
Bishop  of  Worcester  whose  seal  is  known 
to  have  contained  these  arms  as  represent- 
ing the  see. 

The  ProVince  of  Canterbury  69 



ARMS    OF    SEES    IN 

72  Heraldry  of  the   Church 


Gules  the  keys  silver  of  S.  Teter  crossed 
saltirewise  and  in  the  chief  a  crown  gold 
haVing  a  tall  cap  rising  oUt  of  it. 

The  drawino:  is  from  the  seal  of  Arch- 
bishop  Robert  Waldby  (1397-98)  who 
appears  to  have  been  the  first  prelate  to 
assume  these  arms.  In  modern  times  the 
crown  is  made  like  the  crown  of  the  King 
of  England,  but  from  its  form  as  Arch- 
bishop Waldby  assumed  it  it  is  evidently, 
when  taken  in  conjunction  with  the  crossed 
keys,  intended  to  represent  S,  Peter's  tiara. 
More  anciently  still  the  archbishops  used 
as  their  official  arms  a  shield  identical  with 
that  of  the  See  of  Canterbury. 

The  Pro'\)ince  of  York  73 


74  Heralchj  of  the  Church 

Azure  a  cross  gold  beween  four  lions  siher. 

This  magnificent  coat  of  arms  appears 
first  on  the  seal  of  Robert  Nevill,  Bishop 
of  Durham  from  1438  to  1457.  The  lions 
are  possibly  derived  from  the  arms  of  the 
great  Thomas  Hatfield,  bishop  from  1345 
to  138 1,  whose  seal  contains  his  arms,  a 
cheveron  between  three  lions. 

This  shield,  with  the  field  red  and  the 
cross  and  lions  silver,  has  been  found,  it 
is  said,  as  the  ensign  of  S.  Denys,  bishop 
and  martyr. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  Bishop  of 
Durham  is  the  only  prelate  in  England 
who  should  use  a  mitre  having  a  coronet 
about  its  rim.  This  distinction  belongs  to 
him,  and  to  him  alone,  a  sign  of  the 
palatinate  authority  which  until  1835  was 
exercised  by  the  occupants  of  the  see. 

The  Province  of  J^ork 



76  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Silver  a  cross  sable  with  a  mitre  gola 

It  is  difficult  to  trace  any  special  heraldic 
significance  in  these  arms  which  as  late  as 
the  reign  of  Edward  VI  had  not  definitely 
assumed  their  present  form.  The  cathedral 
is  dedicated  to  the  Holy  Trinity. 

The  Proliy^ice  of  l^ork  77 


Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Gules  three  mitres  with  their  labels  gold. 

It  is  said  that  these  are  the  arms  of  the 
abbey  of  Benedictine  nuns  which  was  sup- 
pressed in  Henry  VIIl's  time,  when  the 
church  of  the  nunnery  became  the  cathedral 
of  the  new  see. 

The  Pro'))ince  of  York  79 


Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Stiver  the  eagle  of  S.  John  the  Evangelist 
holding  an  inkhorn  sable  and  a  chief  parted 
azure  and  gules  with  an  open  hook  gold  in  the 
azure  having  on  its  leaves  the  words  "  Thy 
vpord  is  Truth  "  and  in  the  gules  a  three-masted 
ship  gold. 

The  eap^le  is  taken  from  the  ancient  seal 
of  the  borough  ;  the  book  with  its  legend 
was  placed  in  the  chief  at  the  request  of 
John  Charles  Ryle,  first  bishop  (1880- 
1900)  of  Liverpool,  and  the  ship  refers  to 
the  port  and  commerce  of  the  city. 

The  ProYince  of  Tork  8 


Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Or  a  pale  engrailed  gules  ^\nth  three  mitres 
or  thereon  and  a  quarter  gules  with  three  bends 
or  therein. 

Dr.  Woodward  {Ecclesiastical  Heraldry^ 
p.  195)  suggests  that  the  engrailure  of  the 
pale  is  in  allusion  to  the  name  of  the 
Grelleys,  feudal  barons  of  Manchester. 
The  red  quarter  with  its  three  golden 
bends  contains  the  arms  of  Grelley,  which 
also  appear  in  the  shield  of  the  city.  The 
bends  should  be  drawn  as  in  the  illustra- 
tion, not  equally  disposed  in  the  quarter 
but  with  all  three  in  its  upper  part,  in 
accordance  with  the  custom  which  in 
heraldic  fanguage  blazons  them  as  "  en- 

The  ProYince  of  York  83 


Heraldry  of  the   Church 


Gules  three  castles  silver  and  a  chief  azure 
yvith  the  golden  cross  of  S.  Cutbbert  therein. 

These  arms  are  composed  of  the  arms 
of  the  City  of  Newcastle,  red  with  three 
silver  castles,  differenced  by  the  blue  chief 
with  its  golden  cross.  This  representation 
of  the  cross  found  in  S.  Cuthbert's  grave 
at  Durham  is  a  reminder  that  the  juris- 
diction of  the  bishop  extends  over  territory 
which  was  formerly  part  of  the  palatinate. 

The  ProYince  of  York 


86  Heraldry  of  the  Church 


Silver  a  saltire  gules  with  two  crossed  keys 
thereon  and  a  chief  gules  with  a  holy  lamb 
therein  in  its  proper  colours. 

The  cathedral,  formerly  the  church  of 
the  College  of  S.  Wilfrid,  is  dedicated  in 
honour  of  that  saint  and  S.  Peter,  which 
facts  are  happily  indicated  in  the  arms  of 
the  see.  The  keys  upon  the  red  saltire 
plainly  refer  to  S.  Peter,  while  the  white 
lamb  with  his  silver  flag  having  a  red  cross 
upon  it,  and  his  golden  cruciform  nimbus, 
seems  to  have  been  taken  from  the  twelfth- 
century  seal  of  the  College  of  S.  Wilfrid. 

The  Province  of  York  87 


88  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

SoDOR  AND   Man 

Gules  a  crowned  lady  with  a  halo  holding  a 
church  all  in  their  proper  colours  and  standing 
mth  outstretched  arms  between  t^^o pillars  silver 
and  in  the  foot  of  the  shield  three  bent  legs  in 
steel  armour  coming  from  a  common  point. 

The  figure  between  the  pillars  is  in 
modern  times  described  as  the  Blessed 
Virgin  ;  but  there  can  be  no  doubt  that 
originally  it  was  a  representation  of  S.  Ger- 
man, the  Bishop  of  Auxerre  in  France, 
who,  coming  to  this  land  in  a  time  of 
trouble,  wrought  against  the  heresy  ot 
Pelagius  and  was  a  chief  supporter  of  the 
British  Church.  The  pillars  have  all  the 
appearance  of  having  been  once  part  of  an 
architectural  canopy  such  as  is  commonly 
found  in  mediaeval  seals.  The  whole  coat 
in  fact  has  a  seal-like  appearance. 

Below  the  figure  are  set  the  three  steel- 
clad  legs  which  are  the  armorial  bearings 
of  the  island,  and  gave  rise  to  the  old 
jest  that  "  the  arms  of  Man  are  legs." 

The  Pro'))ince  of  York 


90  Heraldry  of  the   Church 


Gold  a  fleur-de-lis  azure  and  a  chief  azure 
with  three  celestial  crowns  gold  therein. 

The  lower  part  of  these  arms  is  suggested 
by  the  arms  of  the  City  of  Wakefield  which 
are  the  reverse,  a  gold  fleur-de-lis  on  blue. 
The  golden  crowns  in  the  blue  chief  speak 
of  the  dedication  of  the  cathedral  in  honour 
of  All  Saints. 

The  Province  of  Tork  9 






94  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

Christ  Church 

Azure  a  cross  gold  charged  voith  the  sacred 
monogram  x  sable. 

So  many  churches  are  dedicated  to  our 
Blessed  Lord  under  this  name  that  a 
special  coat  of  arms  may  well  be  appro- 
priated to  them.  This  shield  is  designed 
on  the  model  of  that  of  the  great  Benedic- 
tine Priory  of  Christ  Church  at  Canterbury, 
whose  armorial  bearings  were  identical  with 
these  but  with  different  colours,  the  Can- 
terbury shield  being  silver,  with  the  cross 
sable  and  the  monogram  gold. 

Shields  associated  ivith  the  Holy  Name     95 


Heraldry  of  the  Church 

Holy  Cross  or  Holy   Rood 
September  14 

Azure  our  Lord  upon  the  Cross  gold. 

Churches  of  this  dedication  have  a  clear 
right  to  this  shield.  The  arms  of  the 
cross  may  extend  to  the  edge  of  the  shield 
or  banner,  if  it  is  preferred.  The  figure 
of  the  Crucified  might  well  be  represented 
crowned,  and  clothed  to  the  feet,  with  His 
arms  laid  horizontally  along  the  beam  of 
the  cross,  and  with  eyes  open,  in  the 
ancient   fashion   which   regarded    Him   as 

"  reigning  from  the  tree.' 

Shields  associated  with  the  Holy  Ni 

ame     97 


98  Heraldry  of  the   Church 


■  Siher  the  fi^e  wounds  of  our  Lord  repre- 
sented by  two  handSj  a  heart  and  two  feet  in 
their  proper  colours  all  pierced  and  bleeding. 

This  ancient  device  is  proposed  as  a 
suitable  shield  for  churches  of  this  dedica- 
tion. The  shield  here  drawn  shows  these 
arms  in  their  most  usual  form.  There  is  a 
shield  of  old  stained-glass  in  the  vestry  of 
S.  Nicholas'  Church  at  Sidmouth  in  Devon 
in  which  a  little  golden  crown  is  placed 
above  each  of  the  five  wounds,  with  these 
inscriptions — under  the  hands  "  Wei  of 
wisdom"  and  "Wei  of  mercy";  under 
the  heart  "Wei  of  everlasting  life"  ;  under 
thei  feet  "  Wei  of  grace  "  and  "  Wei  of 
gostly  CO  fort." 

Shields  associated  with  the  Holy  Ni 

ame     99 


lOO  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

S.   Saviour 

Silver  three  Passion-nails  sable  in  a  crown 
of  thorns  '\>ert. 

The  shield  ot  the  Passion,  as  it  was 
called  in  mediaeval  England,  may  perhaps 
be  regarded  as  appropriate  to  churches 
having  this  dedication.  It  seems  some- 
how reminiscent  of  the  prayer  beginning 
"  O  Saviour  of  the  world  "  in  the  office 
of  the  Visitation  of  the  Sick. 

Shields  associated  with  the  Holy  Name    i  o  i 


02  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

Holy  Trinity 

Gules  the  emblem  of  the  Trinity  silver  with 
the  legends  sable. 

The  ingenuity  of  the  old  armorists  never 
devised  anything  happier  than  this  famous 
emblem,  and  none  is  better  fitted  to  be 
borne  on  shield  or  banner  by  churches 
of  this  dedication.  Its  complete  heraldic 
blazon  is  too  long  for  the  pages  of  a  book 
which  avoids  technicalities,  but  a  glance  at 
the  device  will  show  how  completely  and 
happily  it  expresses  the  great  dogma  of 
the  Godhead  of  the  Three  Persons  of  the 
Blessed  Trinity,  "  neither  confounding  the 
Persons  nor  dividing  the  substance." 

Azure  a  Trinity  gold  ViVQ  the  arms  assigned 
to  S.  Faith,  virgin  and  martyr. 

Shields  associated  with  the  Holy  Name    1 03 




io6  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

S.   Matthew.      September  21 

Gules  an  angel  standing  gold. 

The'  tamiliar  emblem  ot  the  Divine 
Man,  appropriated  to  S.  Matthew  since 
very  early  times  because  in  his  Gospel 
the  human  nature  ot  our  Lord  is  the 
burden  of  his  teaching,  is  here  placed 
upon  a  red  shield  in  token  ot  the  martyr- 
dom of  the  evangelist. 

The  Four  E^ningelists 



io8  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Mark.      April   25 

Gules  a  \91nged  lion  standing  ^ith  his 
nimbus  gold. 

A  wino^ed  lion  is  S.  Mark's  ancient 
symbol,  because  his  Gospel  sets  forth  the 
royal  dignity  of  Christ.  Placed  upon  a 
red  shield  it  will  serve  as  the  heraldic 
emblem  of  the  evangelist  and  martyr. 

The  Four  E^nuigelists 



1 1  o  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Luke.      October    i8 

Gules  a  winged  ox  with  a  nimbus  gold. 

The  ox,  the  emblem  assigned  to  S. 
Luke,  whose  Gospel  dwells  on  the  sacri- 
ficial aspect  of  the  life  of  our  Blessed 
Lord,  is  here  placed  on  red  to  serve  as 
arms  for  churches  dedicated  in  honour  of 
the  evangelist  and  martyr. 

The  Four  Evangelists 

1  1  1 


1 1 2  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

S.  John.     December  27 

Gules  an  eagle  rising  vcith  a  nimbus  gold. 

The  ancient  symbol  of  the  eagle,  assigned 
from  very  early  days  to  S.  John  because 
his  gaze  pierced  further  into  the  mysteries 
of  heaven  than  that  of  any  man,  is  here 
placed  all  gold  on  a  red  field  as  the  most 
appropriate  heraldic  emblem  for  the  son 
ot  thunder. 

The  Four  Kyangelists 



1 1 6  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.  Andrew.      November  30 
Azure  a  saltire  siher. 

The  saltire  is  from  time  immemorial  the 
symbol  of  S.  Andrew  in  memory  of  the 
cross  on  which  he  suffered  martyrdom. 

This  shield  with  the  field  silver  and  the 
saltire  gules  is  that  of  S.  Patrick,  patron 
of  Ireland,  and,  as  is  well  known,  these  two 
saltires  quarterly  quartered  on  S.  Andrew's 
blue  field  form  the  ground  of  the  Union 

A  black  saltire  on  gold  is  traditionally 
assigned  to  S.  Osmund,  Bishop  of  Salis- 
bury. Azure  a  saltire  gold  are  the  arms  of 
S.  Alban,  the  first  martyr  of  Britain,  and 
of  the  great  abbey  in  Hertfordshire  dedi- 
cated in  honour  of  him. 

Arms  assigned  to   Saints  1 1 7 


1 1 8  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

S.   Augustine.      May  26 

Sable  a  cross  silver  yvith  the  cross  of  an 
archbishop  surmounted  by  a  pall  gold  in  the 
first  quarter  and  a  lily  ypith  its  leaves  silver  in 
the  second  quarter. 

In  this  ancient  shield,  attributed  in 
mediaeval  days  to  the  Apostle  of  the 
English,  the  black  field  perhaps  suggests 
the  Benedictine  order  of  which  S.  Augus- 
tine was  a  monk.  The  cross  and  the  pall 
commemorate  his  archiepiscopal  rank.  A 
reason  for  the  inclusion  of  the  lily  is  less 
obvious  ;  but  he  died  in  the  month  of 
Mary,  and  perhaps  the  flower  of  Madonna 
may  have  been  placed  there  in  memory  of 
May  26th,  the  day  of  his  death. 

Arms  assigned  to  Saints 



I20  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.  Bartholomew.      August  24 

Gules  three  flaying-knives  silver  vcith  their 
handles  gold. 

A  large  knife,  which  is  the  emblem  of 
S.  Bartholomew,  refers  to  the  legend  that 
he  suffered  death  by  being  flayed  alive 
and  then  crucified.  But  three  objects 
make  a  better  pattern  in  a  shield  than 
one,  wherefore  three  knives  are  placed 
here.      (Compare  S.  Thomas,  page  190.) 

Arms  assigned  to  Saints  1 2  i 


1 2  2  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Catherine  of  Alexandria 
November  25 

Azure  a  spiked  wheel  silver. 

This  favourite  saint,  who  is  said  to  have 
been  the  only  child  of  a  King  of  Egypt, 
was,  after  S.  Mary  Magdalene,  the  most 
highly  venerated  of  all  women  saints.  She 
was  universally  reverenced  as  the  patroness 
of  learning  and  as  the  noblest  type  of 
chastity.  According  to  the  well-known 
legend  her  persecutors  strove  to  put  her 
to  death  by  breaking  her  upon  a  wheel  set 
with  spikes,  which  by  divine  interposition 
was  broken.  In  Christian  art  the  wheel 
of  S.  Catherine  is  thus  commonly  repre- 
sented as  broken  ;  in  the  shield  of  arms 
devised  for  her  it  is  invariably  shown 

Arms  assigned  to   Saints  123 


24  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

S.   Clement.     November  23 

Azure  an  anchor  gohi  set  upright. 

The  blue  shield  is  charged  with  the  very 
ancient  symbol  of  this  eminent  Bishop  of 
Rome,  which  was  assigned  to  him  in 
memory  of  the  legend  that  during  Trajan's 
persecution  he  was  bound  to  an  anchor 
and  cast  into  the  sea. 

Arms  assigned  to   Saints  125 


126  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   CuTHBERT.      March   20 

Azure  a  cross  paty  gohi  between  four  lions 

It  is  not  easy  to  imagine  what  was  in 
the  minds  of  the  heralds  of  the  Middle 
Ages  who  gave  this  beautiful  shield  to 
the  Hermit-Bishop  of  Lindisfarne,  unless 
we  may  suppose  that  it  was  suggested  by 
the  somewhat  similar  arms  of  the  See  of 
Durham,  in  whose  cathedral  the  saint's 
body  rests.  It  will  be  observed  that  the 
cross  in  this  shield  is  of  different  form 
from  that  of  Durham,  and  that  the  colours 
of  the  chargfes  are  reversed. 

Arms  assigned  to  Sain  is  127 


128  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.  DuNSTAN.     May  19 

iAzure  a  cohered  cup  gold. 

Dunstan,  the  great  Archbishop  of  Can- 
terbury, artist  and  musician,  scholar  and 
reformer,  statesman  and  preacher,  was  an 
expert  worker  in  metals.  He  was  rever- 
enced as  the  patron  saint  of  goldsmiths, 
and  the  golden  cup  in  the  arms  devised 
for  him  is  a  symbol  of  one  side  of  his 
complex  personality. 

Arms  assigned  to  Saints 



130  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Edmund,   King   and   Martyr 
November    20 

Azure  a  crown  gold  with  two  arrows  gold 
passed  through  it  saltirewise. 

Edmund,  the  last  King  of  East  Anglia, 
was  murdered  by  the  heathen  Danes  in 
the  year  870,  who  scourged  him  and  shot 
him  to  death  with  arrows  when  at  a  parley 
with  the  invaders,  he  refused  to  share  his 
kingdom  with  their  chief. 

The  charges  in  the  arms,  which  are  blue 
and  gold  like  those  of  other  Saxon  kings, 
refer  to  his  kingship  and  his  martyrdom. 
The  great  abbey  at  Bury  which  grew  up 
round  S.  Edmund's  shrine  had  for  its  arms 
three  like  crowns  and  pairs  of  arrows  on 
a  blue  field. 

^-Irms  assigned  to  Saints  1 3  i 


132  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Edward  the  Confessor 
October    13 

Azure  a  cross  paty  heWeen  five  martlets 

There  is  scarcely  a  shield  in  English 
armory  more  famous  and  better  known 
than  this  of  the  saint  who  founded  West- 
minster Abbey  and  shared  with  S.  George 
and  S.  Thomas  of  Canterbury  the  devotion 
of  the  English  folk.  Not,  of  course,  that 
King  Edward  himself  ever  displayed  these 
arms  which  were  invented  for  him  long 
after  his  death.  It  is  thought  by  some 
that  the  martlets  in  these  arms  were  sug- 
gested by  the  birds  which  King  Edward 
placed  on  his  coins,  and  that  these  were 
doves  like  that  which  stood  at  the  top  of 
his  sceptre. 

Arms  assigned  to  Saints  133 


134  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   George.     April  23 

Sill?er  a  cross  gules. 

These  famous  arms  have  been  a  part  of 
the  armory  of  England  for  many  centuries. 
The  red  cross  of  the  warrior-saint  was  the 
badge  of  English  fighting  men  throughout 
the  Middle  Ages  ;  and  it  was  blazoned  on 
the  standards  of  all  English  kings  and 
nobles.      S.  George's  shield  are  the  arms 


of  the  order  of  the  Garter,  the  most 
ancient  and  eminent  order  of  knighthood 
in  the  world,  and  his  cross  is  to-day,  as  it 
has  been  for  centuries,  the  most  prominent 
device  in  the  national  flag. 

This  shield,  with  its  field  of  the  imperial 
purple  and  its  plain  cross  gold,  is  suggested 
as  arms  for  S.  Helen,  the  mother  of  the 
Emperor  Constantine,  who,  as  tradition 
relates,  was  the  discoverer  of  the  Cross  of 
our  Lord. 

Irms  assigned  to   Saints 



136  Heraldry  oj  the   Church 

S.   Gregory.      March  12 

Gold  three  bends  gules  and  a  chief  gold 
with  a  roundel  ^ules  therein  harping  the  Holy 
Name  inscribed  upon  it  and  supported  by  two 
lions  gules. 

The  red  roundel  with  the  Holy  Name  in 
gold  is  a  representation  of  the  host,  placed 
here  in  memory  of  the  legend  of  S.  Gre- 
gory's mass.  It  is  said  that  on  a  day 
when  he  was  celebrating  the  Sacrament  a 
vision  of  the  crucified  Lord  descending 
upon  the  altar  was  revealed,  in  answer  to 
the  prayer  of  the  bishop,  to  one  who 
doubted  the  Real  Presence. 

Arms  assigned  to   Saints  137 

138  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Hilda.      November    17 

Azure  three  serpents  coiled  gold. 

Hilda,  the  great-niece  of  King  Edwin 
ot  Northumbria,  was  abbess  first  of  Hartle- 
pool and  afterwards  of  the  famous  house 
at  Whitby  which  she  herself  founded. 
"  She  taught,"  says  Bede,  "  the  strict 
observance  of  justice,  piety,  chastity,  and 
other  virtues,  and  especially  peace  and 
charity  .  .  .  and  so  great  was  her  pru- 
dence that  not  only  all  common  folk  but 
sometimes  even  kings  and  princes  sought 
counsel  of  her  and  found  it."  It  is  related 
that  the  people  adored  her,  and  certain 
stones  which  are  found  there  having  the 
form  of  snakes  coiled  up  were  commonly 
believed  to  be  venomous  reptiles,  thus 
changed  by  the  prayers  of  S.  Hilda.  It  is 
this  tradition  that  is  commemorated  by 
the  golden   charges  in   her  blue  shield. 

4rms  (issi^^ned  to   Saints  139 


140  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.  James.     July  25 

z^zure  three  scallops  gold. 

The  scallop  shell,  the  ancient  emblem 
of  S.  James,  seems  to  have  been  assigned 
to  him  by  the  Spaniards  who  reverenced 
him  as  their  patron  and  protector.  A 
scallop  was  worn  as  a  sign  by  all  pilgrims 
who  had  been  to  Compostela  in  Galicia 
where  the  shrine  of  the  saint  was.  The 
Spanish  knightly  order  of  S.  James  was 
founded  in  memory  of  the  battle  of  Clavijo, 
where,  it  is  said,  the  patron  of  Spain 
appeared,  sword  in  hand,  to  fight  against 
the  Moors  with  the  trappers  of  his  war- 
horse  powdered  with  scallops.  The  badge 
of  that  famous  order  is  a  red  sword  with  a 
silver  scallop  upon  the  hilt.  It  is  thought 
that  the  scallop  may  have  been  chosen  as 
S.  James's  emblem  in  memory  of  his 
having  been  a  fisherman. 

Arms  assigned  to  Saints 





142  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Laurence.     Auo^ust    10 


Siher  a  gridiron  sable. 

Laurence,  the  deacon  of  Rome,  who 
suffered  for  the  Faith  during  Valerian's 
persecution  in  the  year  258  was  so  highly 
honoured  in  this,  as  in  every  other  country 
of  Christendom,  that  churches  dedicated  in 
his  honour  are  to  be  found  in  all  but  four 
counties  in  England.  His  emblem,  the 
instrument  of  his  martyrdom,  is  the  charge 
in  the  silver  shield  that  the  piety  of  me- 
diaeval armorists  devised   for  him. 

Arms  assigned  to  Saints  i  43 


144  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.    Margaret  of   Antioch 
July  2c 

Azure  a  dragon  s  head  torn  off  at  the  neck 
and  pierced  ^ith  a  cross  gold. 

These  arms  are  suggested  by  the  legend 
that  when  S.  Margaret,  the  noble  virgin- 
martyr  of  Antioch,  was  imprisoned  by 
her  persecutors  Satan  in  the  form  of  a 
dragon  appeared  and  devoured  her.  But 
the  power  of  the  cross  which  she  wore 
grew  in  the  mouth  of  the  dragon  and  tore 
him  in  pieces,  so  that  Margaret  came  forth 

Arms  assigned  to  Saints  145 


146  Heraldry  of  til e    Church 

S.   Martin.     November  1 1 
Azure  a  charhocle  gold. 

It  is  not  easy  to  see  why  this  device 
should  have  been  attributed  to  S.  Martin. 
The  charbocle  or  escarbuncle  is  a  heraldic 
figure  which  originated  in  the  central  boss 
with  its  radiatino-  ribs,  used  in  ancient 
times  to  strengthen   the  knightly  shield. 

These  arms  were  borne  by  the  family 
of  St.  Martial  of  Auvergne  in  France,  and 
it  is  possible  that  English  armorists  may 
have  been  misled  by  the  similarity  of  the 
name  into  assigning  them  to  the  famous 
French  bishop  whose  memory  was  so 
greatly  revered  in  our  own  country. 


Arms  assigned  to  Saints  147 


148  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

The  Blessed  VirCxIn   Mary 

Azure  a  heart  in  its  proper  colour  haVing 
wings  gold  and  pierced  by  a  sword  silver  with 
its  hilt  gold. 

This  very  ancient  shield  for  Our  Lady 
is  a  reference  to  Simeon's  words,  "  Yea,  a 
sword  shall  pass  through  thine  own  soul 
also."  Its  blue  field  is  the  Virgin's  colour, 
and  the  charges  are  suggestive  of  Mater 
dolorosa.  Another  shield  frequently  found, 
which  symbolizes  the  Virgin  of  the  An- 
nunciation, is  Silver  a  group  of  lilies  in  their 
proper  colours  standing  in  a  golden  vase. 

Arms  assigned  to  Saints  149 


I  50  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Michael  the  Archangel 
September  29 

Silver  a  cross  pommy  gules. 

The  reason  is  lost  for  the  choice  of  a 
red  cross  of  this  peculiar  form,  with  its 
arms  ending  in  balls  or  apples,  as  the 
emblem  of  the  Archangel  Michael,  but  it 
is  so  assigned  in  Harl.  MS.  5852  in  the 
British  Museum.  Sometimes  the  cross  is 
found  with  trefoiled  ends. 

Arms  assigned  to   Saints  i  5  i 


152  Heraldry  of  tlie   Church 

S.  Thomas  of  Canterbury 
December   29 

Silver  three  Cornish  choughs  in  their  proper 

The  birds  are  black  with  red  legs  and 
beaks.  The  arms  of  the  city,  three  choughs 
and  a  chief  with  a  leopard  of  England,  are 
engraved  in  its  fifteenth-century  seal.  It 
is  hardly  likely  that  Archbishop  Thomas 
himself  actually  bore  arms  ;  but  the 
choughs,  as  Mr.  W.  H.  St.  John  Hope 
has  remarked,  were  certainly  regarded  as 
S.  Thomas's  birds  in  the  Middle  Ages. 
If  there  is  any  legend  to  account  for  this 
it  is  no  longer  remembered. 

Arms  assigned  to  S  din  is  153 


154  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Wilfrid.      October  12 

Gohi  seven  voided  lozenges  gules. 

This  shield  has  been  regarded  as  S.  Wil- 
frid's since  the  fifteenth  century  at  least. 
It  is  not  easy  to  say  why  it  was  assigned 
to  him,  or  wherein  is  its  appropriateness. 
Perhaps,  however,  it  is  more  than  fancy 
which  sees  in  this  reticulated  charge  some 
suggestion  of  a  fishing-net.  For  Wilfrid 
was  not  only  a  great  fisher  of  men.  The 
tale  of  how  in  the  days  of  his  banishment 
he  showed  the  starving  Sussex  folk  the 
plenteous  store  of  food  that  the  sea  held 
for  them  is  well  known.  Perhaps  too  in 
the  seven  sharp  summits  of  the  lozenges 
of  his  shield  there  may  be  a  hint  of  Wil- 
frid's devotion  to  the  See  of  Rome,  as  if 
those  points  referred  to  the  seven  hills  of 
the  eternal  city. 

Arms  assigned  to  Saints  1 5  5 




158  Heraldry  of  til e   Church 

All   Saints.      November  r 

Party  silver  and  sable  a  cro'Von  gold  betvoeen 
three  scrolls  gold  having  the  word  ^^  Sanctus  " 
gules  upon  each. 

This  shield  is  offered  as  a  heraldic 
emblem  for  churches  dedicated  in  honour 
of  All  Saints. 

The  field  divided  perpendicularly  into 
two  equal  halves,  silver  to  the  dexter, 
sable  to  the  sinister,  is  intended  to  sym- 
bolize the  brightness  and  the  trials  of  the 
heavenly  and  the  earthly  life.  A  gold 
crown  has  ever  been  the  emblem  of  sanc- 
tity ;  and  the  scrolls  with  their  red  words 
are  suggested  as  typifying  the  hymn  of 
the  redeemed. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  159 


1 60  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Anne.     July  26 

<iAzure  a  lily  silver  groy\nng  mthin  a  border 
silver  masoned  sable. 

The  blue  field  with  the  silver  lily  grow- 
ing in  it  is  intended  to  represent  the 
girlhood  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  ;  the 
masoned  border  is  for  the  protecting  care 
of  the  mother  of  Our  Lady. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  1 6 1 



J  62  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Barnabas.     June  1 1 

Qiiles  a  fesse  siher  and  six  roses  counter- 

So  little  is  told  of  this  saint  in  history 
and  in  legend  that  it  is  not  easy  to  devise 
a  coat  of  arms  containing  any  allusion  to 
his  personality.  But  his  festival  falls  in 
June,  the  month  of  roses,  and,  in  default 
of  a  better,  perhaps  the  shield  illustrated 
opposite  will  serve  as  a  heraldic  design 
suitable  for  churches  with  this  designation. 

If  the  silver  fesse  is  drawn  so  that  it 
occupies  about  a  third  of  the  shield  the 
roses  (four  of  them  silver  on  the  red  of 
the  field,  the  other  two  red  upon  the  silver 
fesse)  can  be  disposed  in  a  regular  and 
agreeable  pattern  somewhat  after  the  man- 
ner of  a  wreath.  The  shield  then  serves 
to  remind  us  of  a  pretty  custom  that  ob- 
tained in  old  days  in  at  least  one  parish, 
where  on  S.  Barnabas'  day  the  clerks  and 
singing  boys  were  wont  to  crown  them- 
selves with  wreaths  of  roses. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  \  6  3 


164  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.  BoTOLPH.     June   17 

Barry  yoavy  silver  and  azure  a  chevron 
sable  with  its  point  ending  in  a  cross. 

Botolph,  the  hermit-abbot  of  the  fen 
country,  is  famous  as  the  pioneer  of  the 
Benedictine  order  in  England.  At  some 
time  in  the  seventh  century  he,  with  the 
goodwill  of  the  king  of  the  East  Angles, 
founded  a  monastery  on  a  lonely  piece  of 
land  surrounded  by  water.  This  shield 
with  its  six  waved  divisions  of  white  and 
blue  may  be  taken  to  represent  the  water 
that  was  about  his  dwelling,  and  the 
chevron  is  the  old  heraldic  charge  by 
which  the  mediaeval  armorists  symbolized 
a  builder.  The  cross  at  the  top  of  the 
chevron  is  introduced  to.  indicate  that 
S.   Botolph's  building  was  sacred. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  165 


1 66  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Bridget.     February   i 

Siher  a  himp  gules  aflame  in  a  vpreath  of 
oak  vert. 

The  white  field  may  be  regarded  as 
symbolical  of  the  virgin  Abbess  of  Kildare, 
''  the  Mary  of  the  Irish,"  and  suggests  the 
white  garments  which  she  always  wore. 
The  oak  wreath  is  emblematical  ot  Kildare, 
the  greatest  of  her  foundations,  whose 
name  means  "  the  cell  of  the  oak,"  while 
the  red  lamp  with  its  flame  is  a  reminder 
of  the  sacred  fire  which  the  nuns  of  Kildare 
kept  ever  burning  in  memory  of  her. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  167 


1 68  Heraldry  of  the  Church 

S.   David.      March  i 

Silver  a  mount  '\>ert  and  a  pile  azure  with 
a  holy  dove  in  his  proper  colours  descending 

It  is  told  of  S.  David,  the  chief  of  the 
builders  of  the  Church  in  Wales,  that 
when  he  was  a  young  bishop  and  known 
for  a  very  eloquent  preacher  men  besought 
him  to  speak  to  a  great  multitude  when 
other  speakers  had  tried  in  vain  to  make 
themselves  heard.  Whereupon  the  ground 
rose  as  a  high  mount  under  his  feet,  says 
the  legend,  so  that  David  was  clearly  heard 
by  all,  both  far  and  near,  while  a  white 
dove  sat  upon  his  shoulder  and  stayed  so 
long  as  he  was  speaking. 

It  is  this  legend  which  the  shield  here 
devised  for  him  records  in  heraldic  lan- 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  169 


170  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Giles.     September  i 

Vert  a  leaping  hind  gold  shot  through  with 
an  arrow  silver. 

This  shield  is  designed  in  reference  to 
the  favourite  legend  of  the  hermit-saint 
who  is  said  to  have  lived  in  a  forest  by  the 
Rhone.  There  he  was  discovered,  so  it  is 
related,  by  the  King  of  France  while  hunt- 
ing, who  having  tracked  a  wounded  hind 
found  that  she  had  taken  refuge  in  the 
hermit's  cell. 

S.  Giles  is  the  patron  saint  of  the  wood- 
land, hence  the  shield  is  coloured  green. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  i  7  i 


172  Heraldry  of  tlie   Church 

S.  John   Baptist.     June  24 

Gules  a  cross  silver  with  eight  points. 

There  is  no  need  to  seek  far  for  a 
heraldic  symbol  of  S.  John  Baptist  when 
we  have  the  beautiful  cross  which,  under 
its  name  of  the  Maltese  cross,  was  the 
badge  of  the  famous  military  order  of  the 
Knights  Hospitallers.  The  order  was 
instituted  early  in  the  eleventh  century 
under  the  patronage  of  this  saint  for  the 
protection  and  support  of  pilgrims  going 
to  the  sepulchre  of  our  Lord.  After  the 
loss  of  the  Holy  Land  the  order  had 
its  home  at  Rhodes,  but  being  driven 
trom  thence  it  was  transferred  to  Malta 
whence  the  cross  gained  its  familiar  name. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  173 


I  74  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.  JuDE.     October  28 

Gules  a  ship  gold  yvitb  its  sails  and  cordage 

Of  the  several  emblems  appropriated 
to  S.  Jude  the  ship,  as  that  which  appears 
most  often  in  English  representations  of 
him,  has  been  chosen  as  the  charge  for  a 
shield  of  arms  to  symbolize  him.  The 
field  is  gules  in  reference  to  the  legend 
that  he  suffered  a  martyr's  death. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  1 7  5 


176  H  €7' ill  dry  of  the   Church 

S.  Leonard.     November   6 

Sable  a  saltire  of  cJiains  gold  ending  in 
broken  fetters, 

Leonard,  the  patron  saint  ot  prisoners 
and  slaves,  was  a  hermit  of  France  who 
lived  in  the  sixth  century.  He  founded 
an  abbey  near  Limoges  and  spent  his  long 
life  in  works  of  pity,  being  specially  tender 
towards  those  who  had  lost  their  liberty. 
The  Benedictines  claimed  him  as  one  of 
their  order,  and  the  black  field  of  these 
arms  is  a  reminder  of  the  colour  of  their 
habit.  The  golden  chain  with  its  broken 
fetters  is  intended  to  typify  the  freeing  of 
captives  which  was  S.  Leonard's  dearest 
form   of  charity. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  177 


1 78  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Mary  Magdalene.     July  22 

Party  purple  and  sable  strewn  yvith  drops 
silver  an  alabaster  ointment-pot  in  its  proper 

colours  embellished  with  gold. 

The  field  is  divided  perpendicularly  and 
coloured  purple  and  black,  the  colours  of 
penitence  and  mourning.  The  principal 
charge  is  the  symbol  of  the  saint,  and 
the  silver  drops  with  which  the  field  is 
bestrewn  may  be  taken  to  represent 
S.   Mary's  tears. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  179 


I  80  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Matthias.      February  24 

Six  pieces  gules  and  gold  with  three  dice  in 
their  proper  colours  in  the  gules. 

This  shield  is  intended  to  symbolize  by 
its  charges  him  who  was  chosen  by  lot  into 
the  number  of  the  Apostles,  and  by  its 
colours  his  martyrdom  and  renown.  It  is 
suggested  as  an  alternative  to  the  usual 
method  of  representing  a  saint  by  the 
emblem  which  is  used  to  distinguish  him 
in  Christian  art.  A  precedent  for  intro- 
ducing dice  into  a  shield  is  to  be  found  in 
the  arms  of  the  English  family  of  Mathias 
who  bore  Gules  three  dice  silver^  as  well  as 
in  mediaeval  shields  in  Winchester  Cathe- 
dral and  elsewhere  in  which  they  are 
pictured  among  the  instruments  ot  our 
Lord's  Passion. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  1 8  i 


1 82  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.  Nicholas.     December  6 
Azure  three  bezants. 

Nicholas,  Bishop  of  Myra,  the  patron 
saint  of  children,  has  as  his  emblem  three 
golden  balls  in  reference  to  the  legend 
which  tells  how  he  saved  three  sisters 
from  poverty  and  shame  by  throwing 
secretly  three  purses  of  gold  into  their 
house.  These  gifts  are  represented  heral- 
dically  by  golden  roundels  in  the  shield 
opposite,  where  the  blue  field  may  be 
allowed  to  typify  the  sea,  for  S.  Nicholas 
is  the  patron  too  of  seafaring  men. 

The  arms  of  the  Kentish  family  of 
St.  Nicholas  who  bore  Ermine  a  chief 
quarterly  gold  and  gules  are  sometimes 
improperly  ascribed  to  the  Bishop  of 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  i  8  3 

84  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Philip.      May  i 

Gules  a  staff  set  upright  haVing  a  cross  at 
its  head  between  two  fishes  lying  fessewise  mth 
two  roundels  in  the  chief  and  three  in  the  foot 
all  gold. 

The  red  field  is  symbolical  of  martyr- 
dom ;  the  golden  fishes  and  the  five 
roundels  are  for  a  reminder  of  the  miracle 
of  the  feeding  of  the  five  thousand  ;  the 
long  cross  is  that  which  is  seen  in  so 
many  devotional  pictures  of  S.  Philip. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  1 8  5 


I  86  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   Stephen.     December  26 

Gules  a  palm-branch  gold  set  upright 
between  three  flint-stones  siber. 

These  are  the  arms  of  the  Abbey  of 
S.  Stephen  at  Dijon  in  France.  English 
heraldry  seems  to  have  failed  to  devise  a 
shield  for  the  first  martyr,  and  English 
churches  of  this  dedication  would  find  it 
hard  to  design  anything  better  than  these 
expressive  arms  of  the  emblems  of  his 

Arms  suggested  for  Sainis  187 


1 88  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.   SwiTHUN.     July  15 

^ih)er  three  apples  with  their  lea))es  li^ert 
and  a  chief  azure  sprinkled  with  drops  siher. 

The  charges  in  the  shield  are  suggested 
by  the  popular  weather  legend  regarding 
the  festival  of  the  translation  of  the  famous 
bishop.  The  silver  drops  in  the  blue  chief 
refer  to  the  rain  which  so  often  falls  against 
our  hopes  on  S.  Swithun's  day,  while  the 
green  apples  allude  to  the  old  legend  that 
if  S.  Swithun  wets  the  orchards  there  will 
be  a  plentiful  harvest. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints  189 


1 90  Heraldry  of  the   Church 

S.  Thomas.     December  21 

Gules  three  spears  in  their  proper  colours. 

The  field  is  red,  the  martyr's  colour  ;  a 
spear  is  his  well-known  emblem  in  allusion 
to  the  instrument  of  his  martyrdom.  Three 
spears  are  placed  in  this  shielci,  in  accord- 
ance with  mediaeval  heraldic  practice,  tor 
artistic  reasons  ;  for  three  charges  have  a 
better  appearance  than  one.  A  single 
spear  would  occupy  too  small  a  space  to 
make  an   effective  design. 

Arms  suggested  for  Saints 




Alban.  S.,  ii6. 
All  Saints,  158. 
Andrew,  S.,  116. 
Anne,  S. ,  160. 
Armagh,  16. 
Augustine,  S.,  1 18. 

IJangor,  22. 
Barna])as,  S.,  162. 
Bartholomew,  S.,  120. 
Bath  and  Wells,  24. 
Birmingham,  26. 
Botolph,  S.,  164. 
Bridget,  S.,  166. 
Bristol,  28. 

Canterbury,  16. 
Carlisle,  76. 
Catherine,  S.,  122. 
Chad,  S.,  40. 
Chester,  78. 
Chichester,  30. 
Christ  Church,  94. 
Clement,  S.,  124. 
Cross,  Holy,  96. 
Cuthbert,  S.,  126. 

David,  S.,  168. 


Denys,  S.,  74. 
Dublin,  16. 
Dunstan,  S.,  128. 
Durham,  74. 

Edmund,  S.,  130. 
Edward  the  Confessor,  132. 
Ely,  32. 
Emmanuel,  98. 
Etheldreda,  S.,  32. 
Exeter,  34. 

Eaith,  S.,  102. 

Five  Wounds,  The,  98. 

George,  S.,  134. 
Giles,  S.,  170. 
Gloucester,  36. 
Gregory,  S.,  136. 

Helen,  S.,  134. 
Hereford,  38. 
Hilda,  S.,'138. 

James,  S.,  140. 
John  Baptist,  S.,  172. 
John  the  Evangelist,  S. ,  112. 
Jude,  S.,  174. 




Laurence,  S.,  142. 
Leonard,  S. ,  176. 
Lichfield,  40, 
Lincoln,  42. 
Liverpool,  80. 
Llandaff,  44. 
London,  18. 
Luke,  S.,  no. 

Manchester,  82. 

Margaret,  S.,  144. 

Mark,  S.,  108. 

Martin,  S.,  146. 

Mary  Magdalene,  S.,  178. 

Mary,    the    Blessed    Virgin, 

Matthew,  S.,  106. 
Matthias,  S.,  180. 
Michael,  S.,  150. 

Newcastle,  84. 
Nicholas,  S.,  182. 
Norwich,  46. 

Osmund,  S.,  116. 
Osyth,  S.,  32. 
Oxford,  48. 

Patrick,  S.,  116. 
Paul,  S.,  18. 

Peter,  S.,  36. 
Peterborough,  50. 
Philip,  S. ,  184. 

Ripon,  86. 
Rochester,  52. 

St.  Albans,  54. 
St.  Asaph,  56. 
St.  Davids,  58. 
Salisbury,  60. 
Saviour,  S.,  lOO. 
Sodor  and  Man,  88. 
Southwark,  62. 
Southwell,  64. 
Stephen,  S.,  186. 
Swithun,  S.,  188. 

Thomas,  S.,  190. 
Thomas  of  Canterl)ury,   S. 

Trinity,  Holy,  102. 
Truro,  66. 

Wakefield,  90. 
Wilfrid,  S.,  154. 
Winchester,  20. 
Worcester,  68. 

York,  72. 

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